Sultans of Afar people of Afar Triangle

Afar society has historically been organized into independent kingdoms, each ruled by its own Sultan. The Afar People are one of Africa’s long-established and culturally homogenous indigenous people who have lived in the Afar Triangle, at the convergence of what are now Ethiopia, Djibouti and Eritrea since time imemorial.

Djibouti is a multiethnic country with two largest ethnic groups being the Dir clan of  Somali tribe (60%) and the Afar tribe (35%). The Somali clan component is mainly composed of the Issas, followed by a sizable group of Gadabuursi and smaller numbers of Isaaq. Please refer to Sultans of Dir and Gadabuursi on this link – Kings and Sultans of Somalia and Somaliland region

Sultan of Aussa/Awsa (Ethiopia)

Sultanate of Aussa is a monarchy state of Afar people majorly living in Ethiopia since its formation in 1734. It is centred around Aysaita town. The Sultan of Aussa is considered the supreme sultan of all Afar people.

  • Kandhafo 1734–1749
  • Kadhafo Mahammad ibn Kadhafo 1749–1779
  • Aydahis ibn Kadhafo Mahammad 1779–1801
  • Aydahis ibn Mahammad ibn Aydahis 1801–1832
  • Hanfadhe ibn Aydahis 1832–1862
  • Mahammad “Illalta“ ibn Hanfadhe 1862–1902
  • Mahammad ibn Aydahis ibn Hanfadhe 1902–1910
  • Yayyo ibn Mahammad ibn Hanfadhe 1902–1927
  • Mahammad Yayyo 1927–1944
  • Alimirah Hanfare 1944–1975, 1991–2011
  • Hanfare Alimirah 2011-2020

HM Sultan Ahmed Alimirah of Aussa sultanate of Afar people of Ethiopia and horn of Africa was officially crowned the 15th Sultan on 13th March 2023. He is the heir to his late brother Sultan ambassador Hanfare Alimirah who passed away in 2020. He is the son of their late father Sultan Alimirah Hanfare, who was a close friend of Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia.

The Sultan lives in Ethiopia where much of his sultnate was located before modern boundaries of Ethiopia and Eritrea were drawn

His father and brother (last two pics)

Sultan of Tadjoura

Tadjoura is the third largest town in Djibouti. It is one of the oldest towns in Djibouti and the capital of the Tadjourah Region. It is centred around the precoonial sultanate of Tadjourah formed in 1450.

  • Asa Kamil – 1450`
  • Shehem – 1480 
  • Hindiwan – 1510 
  • Hamad – 1540
  • Hummad – 1570
  • Mahammad – 1600 
  • Burhan bin Muhammad – 1620
  • Dini bin Muhammad – 1630
  • Kamil bin Burhan – 1655
  • Hamad bin Dini (or Muhammad bin Dini) – 1655
  • Musa bin Kamil – 1680
  • Dini bin Hamad (or Nasser bin Hamad) – 1680
  • Hamad bin Musa – 1705
  • Muhammad bin Dini – 1705
  • Muhammad bin Hamad – 1740
  • Hamad bin Naser – 1770
  • Hummad bin Muhammad – 1770
  • Mandaytu bin Hamad – 1800-1820
  • Ad’allom Muhammad bin Hummad – 1821-1859
  • Muhammad bin Mandaytu – 1860-9 Mar 1862
  • Hummad bin Ad’allom Muhammad – 1863-1879
  • Hummad bin Muhammad – 1880-24 Aug 1912
  • Muhammad bin Arbahim – 2 Dec 1913-6 Aug 1927
  • Hummad bin Muhammad bin Arbahim – Dec 1928-21 Apr 1962
  • Habib bin Hummad bin Muhammad – 18 May 1964 – 1984
  • Abd’ul Kadir bin Hummad bin Muhammad bin Arbahim – 1985 – 17 May 2019
  • Ali Habib Ahmed – 2022 – Current

Sultan Ali Habib Ahmed is the 34th Sultan of Tadjoura after succeding late sultan who died in 2019. He was crowned in 2022 October. See his Coronation

Sultan of Gobaad 

Gobaad sltanate is made up of Debne and Adorassou clans of Afar people

In May 2015, Habib Mohamed Loïta was enthroned as the 1st Sultan of Gobaad

Sultan of Girrifo/Biru/Biddu

Sultan Abdu Haysama

Current Sultan and late Sultan Mohamed Ahaw


Sultan of Dawwe

Sultan Mohamed Helem M Bodaya of Dawe, Eastern Afar Region died in 2020. He led the Sultanate of Dawe for 39 years

Sultan Mohamed Bodaya 1919 – 1962, Sultan Mohamed Helem M Bodaya 1981- 2020

Sultan of Rahayta (Eritrea)

Rahayta is a coastal town located in Eritrea near the border with Djibouti. It is the base of the precolonial state called the Sultanate of Rahayta formed by the Afar people.

Sultan Derder Abdulkadir Dawood is the 16th Sultan of Rahayta. He lives in Rahayta in Eritrea just close to Djibouti border

Sultan Derder, late Sultan Abubak Abdo and late Sultan Dawud Mohamed


Sultan of Bori.

Sultan of Bori is another sultan of Afar people of Bori sultanate.

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